Directions (1- 10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on a person's health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. In other words, it means to be dangerously overweight. Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adults and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. To know if a person is overweight, the body mass index (BMI) is calculated, by dividing the weight (in kilograms) by the height of the person in meters, squared (multiplied by itself). This is only meaningful for adults who are fully grown and should not be used for children. In children a healthy weight varies with age and gender. Obesity in children and adolescents is defined not as an absolute number but in relation to a historical normal group. A BMI between 20 and 24 is considered normal. People with a BMI of 24 or more are said to be overweight; with 30 and above, they are considered obese, and with 35 and above, they are considered severely obese (this used to be called morbidly obese). In general, the BMI number is a good quantifiable measurement of a person's obesity, however it is a poor predictor in people who are very athletic, because a person with a higher than average amount of muscle tissue will weigh more than an average person, thus resulting in a BMI that is higher than normal, even if that person is very large fat people of America. Someone who is1.75m tall, and has a weight of 80 kg, would have a BMI of 80 / 3.0625. This gives a BMI of 26.12. He or she would therefore be considered overweight. Obesity is usually helped by diet (being careful about what food to eat) and exercise. Some people also use weight loss programs. In severe cases, drugs can be given. In very severe cases, weight-loss surgery can be done. Obesity usually occurs because of over-eating and lack of enough exercise and is easily treated by not eating so much food. Many cultures throughout history viewed obesity as the result of a character flaw. The obesus or fat character in Greek comedy was a glutton and figure of mockery. In fact, the Greeks were the first to recognize obesity as a medical disorder. Hippocrates said, "Corpulence is not only a disease itself, but the harbinger of others". It was known to the Indian surgeon Sushruta (6th century BCE), who related obesity to diabetes and heart disorder. He recommended physical work to help cure it and its side effects. During Christian times food was viewed as a gateway to the sins of sloth and lust. But, for much of human history mankind struggled with food scarcity, and so obesity has sometimes been viewed as a sign of wealth and prosperity. It was common among high officials in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance as well as in Ancient East Asian civilizations. With the onset of the industrial revolution it was realized that the military and economic might of nations were dependent on both the body size and strength of their soldiers and workers. Increasing the average body mass index from what is now considered underweight to what is now the normal range played a significant role in the development of industrialized societies. Height and weight thus both increased through the 19th century in the developed world. During the 20th century, as populations reached their genetic potential for height, weight began increasing much more than height, resulting in obesity. In the 1950s increasing wealth in the developed world decreased child mortality, but as body weight increased heart and kidney disease became more common.
Q1. The BMI number is a good quantifiable measurement of a person's obesity but it has certain limitations. Justify.